Ulm to Vienna Synopsis (1 of 2)

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<p>Napoleon's Ulm maneuver resulted in the destruction of Mack's army. As many as 30,000 Austrian soldiers escaped. Field Marshal Jellachich's division moved south to the Vorarlberg region east of Lake Constance. Field Marshal Kienmayer retreated southeast via Munich and eventually to Braunau, where he would link up with Kutozov's Russian army. Archduke Ferdinand and 5,000 cavalrymen made their way to Bohemia, where they would remain for the rest of the campaign. Austria still possessed its other forces, including Archduke John's corps in the Tyrol and Archduke Charles's much larger army in northern Italy, as well as various units scattered throughout the empire. Austria was additionally allied with Russia, which now had two armies under Buxhöwden and Kutuzov in Austrian territory. But the French had taken as many as 50,000 Austrian prisoners at and around Ulm and Austria no longer possessed a force capable of standing up to Napoleon's Grande Armée in Germany.</p>

<p>Napoleon had thus won the first round. He now faced the question of what to do next. He could move south against Archduke John's army and secure the alpine passes. He could occupy the Austrian capital of Vienna and perhaps cut off Archduke Charles' army, now in headlong retreat from north Italy. Or he could try to overtake Kutuzov's army, now assembled at the military camp at Braunau on the Bavarian border. Napoleon hesitated and it was not until October 25, nearly a week after Mack's surrender, that he fully committed to the pursuit of Kutuzov's force.</p>

<p>In the first week of November Napoleon organized a new VIII Corps under the command of General Mortier and sent it to the north bank of the Danube in an attempt to cut off the Russians' line of retreat. Napoleon's remaining forces pursued Kutuzov's army on the road to Vienna. They failed to catch Kutozov, who crossed the Danube River on November 8 at St. Pölten. Three days later Mortier's corps was surprised and mauled by a Russian force at Dürnstein, a small town on the north bank of the Danube, in what would be the worst French defeat of the campaign.</p>

<p>Kutusov's army departed on August 22; first elements arrived at Braunau in the second week of October (he states Oct. 15 on p. 443) but after forced march and without artillery since the infantry had been sent ahead (the last infantry arrived October 19, the same day as the first artillery). Kutusov set about making it ready to advance against the French and it was only on October 19 that he learned that Mack's army had been trapped and defeated and on October 23 he learned from Mack in person.</p>

<p>Figures: French took some 50,000 Austrian prisoners at Ulm, Memmingen, and surrounding areas; a further 25,000-30,000 escaped (Jellacic south to the Vorarlberg, Kienmayer via Munich, while Ferdinand broke out of Ulm and headed to Bohemia: the battle of Austerlitz would find him in Prague). But Mack's army was effectively destroyed.</p>

<p>Napoleon didn't move east against the Russians until Oct. 25</p>

<p>Napoleon's delay: 1) lack of firm plans; 2) supply problems; 3) lack of knowledge regarding Russian forces - he had various information, much of it wrong.</p>

<p>Kagan argues that 2) and 3) are plausible, make sense, and have evidence in their favor but that 1) is certain (see 444).</p>

<h3>Factoid</h3>

<p>Kutuzov's army marched through Krems on way to Braunau (the first column passed through on October 3).</p>

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